List of papers related to formamide in prebiotic chemistry published by us and others:

1.            Saladino, R.; Crestini, C.; Costanzo, G.; Negri, R.; Di Mauro, E. A possible prebiotic synthesis of purine, adenine, cytosine, and 4(3H)-pyrimidinone from formamide: Implications for the origin of life. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 2001, 9 (5), 1249-1253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0968-0896(00)00340-0

2.            Saladino, R.; Ciambecchini, U.; Crestini, C.; Costanzo, G.; Negri, R.; Di Mauro, E. One-pot TiO2-catalyzed synthesis of nucleic bases and acyclonucleosides from formamide: Implications for the origin of life. Chembiochem 2003, 4 (6), 514-521. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.200300567

3.            Saladino, R.; Crestini, C.; Ciambecchini, U.; Ciciriello, F.; Costanzo, G.; Di Mauro, E. Synthesis and degradation of nucleobases and nucleic acids by formamide in the presence of montmorillonites. Chembiochem 2004, 5 (11), 1558-1566. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.200400119

4.            Saladino, R.; Crestini, C.; Ciciriello, F.; Costanzo, G.; Negri, R.; Di Mauro, E. A novel synthesis of biomolecular precursors. In Astrobiology: Future Perspectives, Ehrenfreund, P.; Irvine, W.; Owen, T.; Becker, L.; Blank, J.; Brucato, J.; Colangeli, L.; Derenne, S.; Dutrey, A.; Despois, D.; Lazcano, A.; Robert, F., Eds. 2004; Vol. 305, pp 393-413.

5.            Saladino, R.; Crestini, C.; Busiello, V.; Ciciriello, F.; Costanzo, G.; Di Mauro, E. Differential stability of 3 '- and 5 '-phosphoester bonds in deoxy monomers and oligomers. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2005, 280 (42), 35658-35669. http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M504537200

6.            Saladino, R.; Crestini, C.; Neri, V.; Brucato, J. R.; Colangeli, L.; Ciciriello, F.; Di Mauro, E.; Costanzo, G. Synthesis and degradation of nucleic acid components by formamide and cosmic dust analogues. Chembiochem 2005, 6 (8), 1368-1374. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.200500035

7.            Saladino, R.; Crestini, C.; Ciciriello, F.; Costanzo, G.; Di Mauro, E. About a formamide-based origin of informational polymers: Syntheses of nucleobases and favourable thermodynamic niches for early polymers. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere 2006, 36 (5-6), 523-531. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11084-006-9053-2

8.            Saladino, R.; Crestini, C.; Ciciriello, F.; Di Mauro, E.; Costanzo, G. Origin of informational polymers - Differential stability of phosphoester bonds in ribomonomers and ribooligomers. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2006, 281 (9), 5790-5796. http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M512545200

9.            Saladino, R.; Crestini, C.; Neri, V.; Ciciriello, F.; Costanzo, G.; Mauro, E. Origin of informational polymers: The concurrent roles of formamide and phosphates. Chembiochem 2006, 7 (11), 1707-1714. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.200600139

10.         Ciciriello, F.; Costanzo, G.; Crestini, C.; Saladino, R.; Di Mauro, E. Origin of informational polymers and the search for non-terran life: Protection of the polymeric state of DNA by phosphate minerals. Astrobiology 2007, 7 (4), 616-630. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ast.2006.0044

11.         Costanzo, G.; Saladino, R.; Crestini, C.; Ciciriello, F.; Di Mauro, E. Nucleoside phosphorylation by phosphate minerals. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2007, 282 (23), 16729-16735. http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M611346200

12.         Costanzo, G.; Saladino, R.; Crestini, C.; Ciciriello, F.; Di Mauro, E. Formamide as the main building block in the origin of nucleic acids. Bmc Evolutionary Biology 2007, 7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-7-s2-s1

13.         Saladino, R.; Crestini, C.; Ciciriello, F.; Costanzo, G.; Di Mauro, E. Formamide chemistry and the origin of informational polymers. Chemistry & Biodiversity 2007, 4 (4), 694-720. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.200790059

14.         Ciciriello, F.; Costanzo, G.; Pino, S.; Crestini, C.; Saladino, R.; Di Mauro, E. Molecular complexity favors the evolution of ribopolymers. Biochemistry 2008, 47 (9), 2732-2742. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi7021014

15.         Saladino, R.; Neri, V.; Crestini, C.; Costanzo, G.; Graciotti, M.; Di Mauro, E. Synthesis and Degradation of Nucleic Acid Components by Formamide and Iron Sulfur Minerals. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2008, 130 (46), 15512-15518. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja804782e

16.         Saladino, R.; Crestini, C.; Ciciriello, F.; Pino, S.; Costanzo, G.; Di Mauro, E. From formamide to RNA: the roles of formamide and water in the evolution of chemical information. Research in Microbiology 2009, 160 (7), 441-448. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resmic.2009.06.001

17.         Barks, H. L.; Buckley, R.; Grieves, G. A.; Di Mauro, E.; Hud, N. V.; Orlando, T. M. Guanine, Adenine, and Hypoxanthine Production in UV-Irradiated Formamide Solutions: Relaxation of the Requirements for Prebiotic Purine Nucleobase Formation. Chembiochem 2010, 11 (9), 1240-1243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.201000074

18.         Saladino, R.; Neri, V.; Crestini, C.; Costanzo, G.; Graciotti, M.; Di Mauro, E. The Role of the Formamide/Zirconia System in the Synthesis of Nucleobases and Biogenic Carboxylic Acid Derivatives. Journal of Molecular Evolution 2010, 71 (2), 100-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00239-010-9366-7

19.         Costanzo, G.; Pino, S.; Botta, G.; Saladino, R.; Di Mauro, E. May Cyclic Nucleotides Be a Source for Abiotic RNA Synthesis? Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 2011, 41 (6), 559-562. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11084-011-9249-y

20.         Nguyen, V. S.; Abbott, H. L.; Dawley, M. M.; Orlando, T. M.; Leszczynski, J.; Minh, T. N. Theoretical Study of Formamide Decomposition Pathways. Journal of Physical Chemistry A 2011, 115 (5), 841-851. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp109143j

21.         Saladino, R.; Barontini, M.; Cossetti, C.; Di Mauro, E.; Crestini, C. The Effects of Borate Minerals on the Synthesis of Nucleic Acid Bases, Amino Acids and Biogenic Carboxylic Acids from Formamide. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 2011, 41 (4), 317-330. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11084-011-9236-3

22.         Saladino, R.; Crestini, C.; Cossetti, C.; Di Mauro, E.; Deamer, D. Catalytic effects of Murchison Material: Prebiotic Synthesis and Degradation of RNA Precursors. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 2011, 41 (5), 437-451. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11084-011-9239-0

23.         Costanzo, G.; Saladino, R.; Botta, G.; Giorgi, A.; Scipioni, A.; Pino, S.; Di Mauro, E. Generation of RNA Molecules by a Base-Catalysed Click-Like Reaction. Chembiochem 2012, 13 (7), 999-1008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.201200068

24.         De Angelis, F.; Crucianelli, M. Are purely chemically-sustained processes able to generate molecules for life? Physics of Life Reviews 2012, 9 (1), 118-120. http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plrev.2011.12.008

25.         Ferus, M.; Civis, S.; Mladek, A.; Sponer, J.; Juha, L.; Sponer, J. E. On the Road from Formamide Ices to Nucleobases: IR-Spectroscopic Observation of a Direct Reaction between Cyano Radicals and Formamide in a High-Energy Impact Event. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2012, 134 (51), 20788-20796. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja310421z

26.         Hudson, J. S.; Eberle, J. F.; Vachhani, R. H.; Rogers, L. C.; Wade, J. H.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Springsteen, G. A Unified Mechanism for Abiotic Adenine and Purine Synthesis in Formamide. Angew. Chem.-Int. Edit. 2012, 51 (21), 5134-5137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201108907

27.         Kaempfer, R. Kick-starting the origin of life. Physics of Life Reviews 2012, 9 (1), 111-113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plrev.2011.12.014

28.         Lane, N. Thermodynamics, formamide, and the origin of life. Physics of Life Reviews 2012, 9 (1), 105-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plrev.2012.01.005

29.         Leyton, P. The role of minerals on prebiotic synthesis. Physics of Life Reviews 2012, 9 (1), 116-117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plrev.2011.12.009

30.         Nielsen, P. E. Formamide in the cradle of life? Physics of Life Reviews 2012, 9 (1), 107-108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plrev.2012.01.004

31.         Saladino, R.; Botta, G.; Pino, S.; Costanzo, G.; Di Mauro, E. From the one-carbon amide formamide to RNA all the steps are prebiotically possible. Biochimie 2012, 94 (7), 1451-1456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2012.02.018

32.         Saladino, R.; Botta, G.; Pino, S.; Costanzo, G.; Di Mauro, E. Genetics first or metabolism first? The formamide clue. Chemical Society Reviews 2012, 41 (16), 5526-5565. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2cs35066a

33.         Saladino, R.; Crestini, C.; Pino, S.; Costanzo, G.; Di Mauro, E. Formamide and the origin of life. Physics of Life Reviews 2012, 9 (1), 84-104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plrev.2011.12.002

34.         Saladino, R.; Crestini, C.; Pino, S.; Costanzo, G.; Di Mauro, E. Reply to comments Formamide in non-life/life transition. Physics of Life Reviews 2012, 9 (1), 121-123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plrev.2012.01.006

35.         Pino, S.; Costanzo, G.; Giorgi, A.; Sponer, J.; Sponer, J. E.; Di Mauro, E. Ribozyme Activity of RNA Nonenzymatically Polymerized from 3 ',5 '-Cyclic GMP. Entropy 2013, 15 (12), 5362-5383. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e15125362

36.         Saladino, R.; Botta, G.; Delfino, M.; Di Mauro, E. Meteorites as Catalysts for Prebiotic Chemistry. Chemistry-a European Journal 2013, 19 (50), 16916-16922. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.201303690

37.         Saladino, R.; Botta, G.; Pino, S.; Costanzo, G.; Di Mauro, E. Materials for the onset. A story of necessity and chance. Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark 2013, 18, 1276-1290. http://dx.doi.org/10.2741/4179

38.         Wang, J.; Gu, J. D.; Nguyen, M. T.; Springsteen, G.; Leszczynski, J. From Formamide to Adenine: A Self-Catalytic Mechanism for an Abiotic Approach. Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2013, 117 (45), 14039-14045. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp409296k

39.         Wang, J.; Gu, J. D.; Nguyen, M. T.; Springsteen, G.; Leszczynski, J. From Formamide to Purine: A Self-Catalyzed Reaction Pathway Provides a Feasible Mechanism for the Entire Process. Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2013, 117 (32), 9333-9342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp404540x

40.         Wang, J.; Gu, J. D.; Nguyen, M. T.; Springsteen, G.; Leszczynski, J. From Formamide to Purine: An Energetically Viable Mechanistic Reaction Pathway. Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2013, 117 (8), 2314-2320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp311423q

41.         Civis, S.; Ferus, M.; Sponer, J. E.; Sponer, J.; Kavan, L.; Zukalova, M. Room temperature spontaneous conversion of OCS to CO2 on the anatase TiO2 surface. Chemical Communications 2014, 50 (57), 7712-7715. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4cc01992j

42.         Di Mauro, E.; Saladino, R.; Trifonov, E. N. The path to life's origins. Remaining hurdles. Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics 2014, 32 (4), 512-522. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2013.783509

43.         Ferus, M.; Michalcikova, R.; Shestivska, V.; Sponer, J.; Sponer, J. E.; Civis, S. High-Energy Chemistry of Formamide: A Simpler Way for Nucleobase Formation. Journal of Physical Chemistry A 2014, 118 (4), 719-736. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp411415p

44.         Kumar, A.; Sharma, R.; Kamaluddin. Formamide-Based Synthesis of Nucleobases by Metal(II) Octacyanomolybdate(IV): Implication in Prebiotic Chemistry. Astrobiology 2014, 14 (9), 769-779. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ast.2014.1187

45.         Saitta, A. M.; Saija, F. Miller experiments in atomistic computer simulations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2014, 111 (38), 13768-13773. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1402894111

46.         Carota, E.; Botta, G.; Rotelli, L.; Di Mauro, E.; Saladino, R. Current Advances in Prebiotic Chemistry Under Space Conditions. Current Organic Chemistry 2015, 19 (20), 1963-1979. http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1385272819666150622175143

47.         Ferus, M.; Knizek, A.; Sponer, J.; Sponer, J. E.; Civis, S. Radical synthesis of nucleic acid bases from formamide in impact plasma. Chemicke Listy 2015, 109 (6), 406-414.

48.         Ferus, M.; Nesvorny, D.; Sponer, J.; Kubelik, P.; Michalcikova, R.; Shestivska, V.; Sponer, J. E.; Civis, S. High-energy chemistry of formamide: A unified mechanism of nucleobase formation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2015, 112 (3), 657-662. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1412072111

49.         Furukawa, Y.; Kim, H. J.; Hutter, D.; Benner, S. A. Abiotic Regioselective Phosphorylation of Adenosine with Borate in Formamide. Astrobiology 2015, 15 (4), 259-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ast.2014.1209

50.         Pietrucci, F.; Saitta, A. M. Formamide reaction network in gas phase and solution via a unified theoretical approach: Toward a reconciliation of different prebiotic scenarios. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2015, 112 (49), 15030-15035. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1512486112

51.         Saitta, A. M.; Saija, F.; Pietrucci, F.; Guyot, F. Reply to Bada and Cleaves: Ab initio free-energy landscape of Miller-like prebiotic reactions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2015, 112 (4), E343-E344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1421035112

52.         Saladino, R.; Carota, E.; Botta, G.; Kapralov, M.; Timoshenko, G. N.; Rozanov, A. Y.; Krasavin, E.; Di Mauro, E. Meteorite-catalyzed syntheses of nucleosides and of other prebiotic compounds from formamide under proton irradiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2015, 112 (21), E2746-E2755. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1422225112

53.         Sponer, J. E.; Sponer, J.; Giorgi, A.; Di Mauro, E.; Pino, S.; Costanzo, G. Untemplated Nonenzymatic Polymerization of 3 ',5 ' cGMP: A Plausible Route to 3 ',5 '-Linked Oligonucleotides in Primordia. Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2015, 119 (7), 2979-2989. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b00601

54.         Stadlbauer, P.; Sponer, J.; Costanzo, G.; Di Mauro, E.; Pino, S.; Sponer, J. E. Tetraloop-like Geometries Could Form the Basis of the Catalytic Activity of the Most Ancient Ribooligonucleotides. Chemistry-a European Journal 2015, 21 (9), 3596-3604. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.201406140

55.         Civis, S.; Szabla, R.; Szyja, B. M.; Smykowski, D.; Ivanek, O.; Knizek, A.; Kubelik, P.; Sponer, J.; Ferus, M.; Sponer, J. E. TiO2-catalyzed synthesis of sugars from formaldehyde in extraterrestrial impacts on the early Earth. Scientific Reports 2016, 6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep23199

56.         Costanzo, G.; Pino, S.; Timperio, A. M.; Sponer, J. E.; Sponer, J.; Novakova, O.; Sedo, O.; Zdrahal, Z.; Di Mauro, E. Non-Enzymatic Oligomerization of 3 ', 5 ' Cyclic AMP. Plos One 2016, 11 (11). http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165723

57.         Fiore, M.; Strazewski, P. Bringing Prebiotic Nucleosides and Nucleotides Down to Earth. Angew. Chem.-Int. Edit. 2016, 55 (45), 13930-13933. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201606232

58.         Niether, D.; Afanasenkau, D.; Dhont, J. K. G.; Wiegand, S. Accumulation of formamide in hydrothermal pores to form prebiotic nucleobases. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2016, 113 (16), 4272-4277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1600275113

59.         Rotelli, L.; Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Carota, E.; Botta, L.; Di Mauro, E.; Saladino, R. The key role of meteorites in the formation of relevant prebiotic molecules in a formamide/water environment. Scientific Reports 2016, 6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep38888

60.         Saladino, R.; Botta, G.; Bizzarri, B. M.; Di Mauro, E.; Ruiz, J. M. G. A Global Scale Scenario for Prebiotic Chemistry: Silica-Based Self-Assembled Mineral Structures and Formamide. Biochemistry 2016, 55 (19), 2806-2811. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biochem.6b00255

61.         Saladino, R.; Carota, E.; Botta, G.; Kapralov, M.; Timoshenko, G. N.; Rozanov, A.; Krasavin, E.; Di Mauro, E. First Evidence on the Role of Heavy Ion Irradiation of Meteorites and Formamide in the Origin of Biomolecules. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 2016, 46 (4), 515-521. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11084-016-9495-0

62.         Sponer, J. E.; Sponer, J.; Di Mauro, E. Four Ways to Oligonucleotides Without Phosphoimidazolides. Journal of Molecular Evolution 2016, 82 (1), 5-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00239-015-9709-5

63.         Sponer, J. E.; Sponer, J.; Novakova, O.; Brabec, V.; Sedo, O.; Zdrahal, Z.; Costanzo, G.; Pino, S.; Saladino, R.; Di Mauro, E. Emergence of the First Catalytic Oligonucleotides in a Formamide-Based Origin Scenario. Chemistry-a European Journal 2016, 22 (11), 3572-3586. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.201503906

64.         Sponer, J. E.; Szabla, R.; Gora, R. W.; Saitta, A. M.; Pietrucci, F.; Saija, F.; Di Mauro, E.; Saladino, R.; Ferus, M.; Civis, S.; Sponer, J. Prebiotic synthesis of nucleic acids and their building blocks at the atomic level - merging models and mechanisms from advanced computations and experiments. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2016, 18 (30), 20047-20066. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6cp00670a

65.         Cassone, G.; Sponer, J.; Saija, F.; Di Mauro, E.; Saitta, A. M.; Sponer, J. E. Stability of 2 ',3 ' and 3 ',5 ' cyclic nucleotides in formamide and in water: a theoretical insight into the factors controlling the accumulation of nucleic acid building blocks in a prebiotic pool. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2017, 19 (3), 1817-1825. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6cp07993h

66.         Ferus, M.; Pietrucci, F.; Saitta, A. M.; Knizek, A.; Kubelik, P.; Ivanek, O.; Shestivska, V.; Civis, S. Formation of nucleobases in a Miller-Urey reducing atmosphere. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2017, 114 (17), 4306-4311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1700010114

67.         Sponer, J. E.; Sponer, J.; Di Mauro, E. New evolutionary insights into the non-enzymatic origin of RNA oligomers. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews-Rna 2017, 8 (3). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wrna.1400